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It depends on the type of roots and how many places the roots have broken into the line.
Its possible for a blockage to be broken through and a lot of the roots to be cut away during a cabling only to have another blockage a short time later.
A good thing to do is to have a professional run a camera into your line right after a cleaning.
The rule of thumb before cameras were readily available and cheap enough for a homeowner to hire was if a line had to be professionally cleared more than twice in any 12 month period the whole line was replaced. Obviously there were a few more variables involved but in the interests of brevity that was the rule of thumb.
With cameras to show the condition of the entire line just repairing a bad section of pipe is a safer proposition than before.
Another thing to consider is the type of tree the roots are from. I have an old pine that the roots have to be cut from the drain about once a year. I had a couple water maples (note,I said HAD) that required cutting at least once a month.
When I still played turd-chaser, I would occasionally get jobs for blockages in main lines and my snake cutter would pull back clumps of them after i snaked the line. On jobs like these, if nothing is done about it, the customer can expect to get blockages like this repeatedly about once a year or so and have to snake it again. Some people with this problem get on maintenance contracts where they have their main lines snaked every 6 months or year.
The thing is, obviously, your main line has separation/s in it which are allowing the roots to come into the pipe. So often, if roots are a really bad problem, it is sometimes advisable to camera the line to see how bad the separations are. I have seen main lines become so separated from shifting soil conditions that they not only have problems with roots, they are also getting rocks and dirt in there as well.
Anyway, what I always suggest to people with this prob is to buy some Root-X and use it every 6 months (pour it down a main line clean-out). Often, the stuff works so well you may never need another snaking again. It kills the roots so they stop growing.