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What voltage is the motor and is it single phase or three phase?
To try to oversimplify it I would say... If we are talking about a 110V residential blower motor the speed is determined by how many of the windings get energized in the rotation sequence. Since it is all the same phase doing the work I'm gonna say it would not make a difference except that the motor would be running at high speed if you energized any two speed leads though you will loose efficiency if the windings are not energized in the right sequence. ( I don't think it would short out but even the type of motor would make a difference as well)
I had this happen once. Basic furnace 110 volt PSC blower. One of the spade terminals on the IFC was bent over allowing the "Fan" speed to touch the "Heat" terminal. Fan was low, and heat was medium high. After about 30 seconds of run time the motor got hot enough to shut itself off on thermal overload.