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As Velosapien pointed out, its a matter of cross-cut capacity. A SCMS will actually cross-cut, moving the length of the sliding mount and thus cut a path across the lumber to the extent allowed.
With a standard CMS, the tool simply rotates down, plunge cutting into the workpiece. The maximum width being determined by the blade diameter. Of course you need to note that there's no way to plunge the blade all the way to the center of the blade and get the full blade diameter capacity. Therefore the "cut" is limited and significantly less than the blade diameter might otherwise indicate.
Thus, a 10-inch diameter blade (10" CMS) gives you a maximum cross-cut of 6 inches, while a 12-inch diameter blade (12" CMS) provides a maximum cross-cut of 8 inches. Various models may offer some slight differences, but that's the general capacity of the cut.
Thank you both for your replies. I am currently in the market for a cms and wasn't sure of the differences between the two. The slider is over 200 dollars more than the non-slider, so I wanted to make a better informed decision.
You should always aim for a slider unless it's out of your budget or you're sure you will not need that extra cutting capacity. There's nothing worse than buying the non-slider only to find out it doesn't give you the cutting capacity needed and you'll need to buy a slider later on.
That is true, most sliders are huge and heavy so take that into account. There are some models like the Makita that are fairly smaller and portable though. Another thing to consider is 12" models will only give you taller cutting capacity. If you will be mostly cutting boards laying flat on the table 10" saw will have roughly the same crosscutting capacity as most 12" sliders. The smaller blades also have the advantage of being cheaper and little more accurate due to less deflection.